PLANETS AND PERSONALITY
We defined "personality" as "a synthesis of patterns of behavior; as the sum total of all the outer motions and emotions of the human being: the total rhythm of his life-operations — from the way he walks and twitches his lips to his behavior on the battlefield or on a concert platform." We said that, as without activity there could be no "personality," we can speak of it as a complex of activities. Such statements are sufficient proof that we do not give to the term the rather pejorative meaning which theosophists and students of esoteric philosophy ordinarily affix to it.
We do not consider personality as representing the "outer" being in contradistinction to the so-called individuality or "inner" being. We feel that this opposition or dualism is not particularly fruitful at our present stage of human development. Rather, it tends to focalize human behavior in a way which is more devotional-ethical than integrative and esthetical — the latter term being used as previously defined. Personality, to us and presumably to men like General Smuts and most modern psychologists, is the whole human being in operation. It is not the whole human being in essence or abstractly, but in actual manifestation and to the extent to which it is perceptible to other personalities functioning at the same level of operation.
No astrologer — and as well no psychoanalyst — can interpret a life and destiny at a level higher than that at which he himself functions. A narrow-minded clerk in a small town office cannot know the personality of a great saint or genius as it is. He will, of course, pass judgment upon it or possibly worship it, but he is not in a position to know it and to evaluate it as a personality — even though he may react most sharply to some features of it. Personality signifies wholeness in actu. And there is no real perception, or at any rate no understanding, of personality unless the totality of its components is apprehended, consciously or through intuitive feelings. And no one can apprehend this totality unless he be at the same level of human development, or, if at a higher level, to be still able to put himself temporarily at the lower level.
These remarks are necessary, because people often speak of personality as if it were an absolutely obvious thing similarly apprehended by everyone. Reacting to some phases of a personality, and understanding or even being aware of the reality — that is, of the human wholeness, which is the personality itself — are two very different operations. Personality, as a synthesis of patterns of behavior, may encompass many phases of activities most difficult to apprehend. We are not referring here to an exaggerated dedoublement of personality which produces two absolutely distinct types of behavior in relation to one physical organism, but merely to the fact that personality may involve series of activities which transcend the normal conscious development of mankind as it is today. Personality is a "balance-sheet" showing the ever-changing relationship of conscious to unconscious, individual to collective factors, in the whole human being. Men whose inner beings are flooded with projections from the deeper layers of the "collective unconscious" are, as personalities, complex and hard to fathom. Only their peers can know them, can know the total pattern of their behavior at all levels. For, as Walt Whitman wrote, with cryptic beauty of utterance:
"Only themselves understand themselves and the like of themselves,
And souls only understand souls."
Undoubtedly one of the greatest achievements of astrological technique is the power one acquires, through mastering it, to see in a birth-chart the blueprint of a total personality. We have already seen how one can isolate and interpret the individual and collective factors which constitute, as it were, the warp and woof of personality. But the pattern of the tapestry is to be apprehended only by studying those astrological entities which are foci of color, foci of activity, foci of significance. These entities, considered in their infinite correlations and not as isolated dots, make all together the design of the life-tapestry. They reveal the personality as a pattern of multifarious behavior, symbolizing from the most matter of fact to the most exalted or transcendental modes of physio-psychological activity.
These astrological entities come under two general categories. First, the planets themselves, including Sun and Moon; second, abstract points derived from the relationships between either the orbits of the planets (nodes) or the positions of said planets in reference to horizon and meridian (parts). This chapter will be devoted to a brief analysis of the basic significance of planets in terms of personality-analysis; the next, to a study of the nodes and of the most important among the parts.
We shall, however, once more have to divide our field of study, and to classify the planets in at least two essential manners. The first type of classification deals with the motivating power and the source of the activities symbolized by the planets. We shall distinguish between planets referring to the conscious and planets referring to the unconscious — using the terms "conscious" and "unconscious" as used by C. G. Jung, and as defined in a previous chapter (Cf. p. 85, Astrology and Analytical Psychology). Outside of these two categories we shall place the Sun as the symbol of the integrating energies of the Self, which is described by Jung as the "center of the totality of the psyche." The psyche includes both unconscious and conscious contents. To integrate these contents — that is, consciously to assimilate the contents of the unconscious — is the essence of the process of individuation, of which the Sun is the active symbol.
The Sun as Integrator
Astrology, being a system of symbolic interpretation of significant astronomical facts, must obviously differentiate strongly between the Sun — a life — and light-giving star which is the center of the astronomical system to which we belong — and planets which are merely reflectors or transmitters of light, and of which the Earth itself is one. If we refer to the ego as "a complex of representations which constitutes the center of my field of consciousness and appears to possess a very high degree of continuity and identity:" it is clear that the astrological symbol thereof is the Earth itself as seen from the birth-place of the native. The continuous field of consciousness of any man is what is contained within the boundaries of his horizon, and by implications what, though below the horizon, will emerge into the field of his consciousness.
In other words, the quadrature of the astrological chart (horizon and meridian — and especially Ascendant and Mid-Heaven) represents the form of the field of consciousness. The ego may be considered as the birth-point itself, the center of the chart — or, in an even more accurate symbolization, the apex of the pyramid built on the four angles of the chart. The ego is not the integrator because it is only an abstract point. Neither are Ascendant nor Mid-Heaven integrating factors, for they too have only structural implications. They determine the form which will have to be taken by the process of integration. They do not symbolize the quality of energy by the release of which this process will, or may, ultimately be completed.
Building the field of consciousness as a clearly formed structure centered accurately in the ego is like building a perfect eye with the power of precise focalization through the lens and the eye's muscles, so that the image reflected upon the retina falls exactly on the "yellow spot" of the retina which alone is endowed with full sensitiveness to light. It is what the great eye specialist and philosopher, Dr. Bates, called "central fixation"; and this operation requires muscular practice and visualizing or imaging practice, including relaxation.
In a psychological sense, "central fixation" refers to the use of the intellect — the mechanism of conscious focalization — according to the laws of logic and formal thinking. Much, if not all, of classical and post-classical Greek philosophy (especially since Aristotle) and all Western science (especially since the Renaissance) and modern scientific philosophy (for instance, Bertrand Russell) constituted and still constitute a vast collective training in mental "central fixation." In the psychic-spiritual realm certain types of esoteric practices, some derived from the Buddhistic world-viewpoint in the East, others from the Pythagorean philosophy, aimed at a similar "central fixation" of the soul-energies within a formed structure of "I Am-ness." As already said, it was around the sixth century B.C. that this problem of mental focalization began to dominate the outlook of the elite of mankind. This process of "central fixation" in the field of the conscious has been going on throughout the European cycle (especially since Abelard), and has produced the Western man, with what Jung called so graphically his "cramp of the conscious."
Just as Dr. W. H. Bates asked his patients to relax their eyes by imagining a perfectly black spot, so Dr. Jung asks his to relax their conscious intellectualism by "letting things happen" and by practices of psychic relaxation, such as the use of spontaneous creative "phantasy."
If thus the chart-axes represent the structure of the field of consciousness — the structure of the "eye," symbolically — the Sun stands for the 'light" releasing the energy (the photons) by means of which vision is made possible. In a real sense the eye as an organ of vision is molded structurally by the nature of the light. Likewise the ego — the conscious "I" — is molded by the power emanating from the Self. Fittingly therefore, it is said that the Ascendant and the other "angles" of the chart distribute the power of the Sun, as we shall see in the next chapter. The Sun is the life-energy. The chart's axes are channels for the distribution and "transformation" of this solar energy within the field of consciousness.
The Sun, however, should not be considered as the symbol of the Self. It represents the power of the Self; but the Self itself is not only power. It is power in relation to form. It is power operating through a form and regenerating substance. In other words, the Self, if its nature can at all be ascertained astrologically, is the relation between the Sun and the axes, horizon and meridian.
More accurately still, it is the relation between the significance of the zodiacal positions occupied by the Sun and the four angles — significance in terms of zodiacal signs (or sign subdivisions), of degree, and of angular relationship between these positions. The latter refer to the aspects between Sun, Ascendant and Midheaven; but even more so to the house-position of the Sun.
This house-position of the Sun denotes the phase of individual selfhood and the period of the life in and through which the integrative power of the Self will be the most strongly operating. By referring to our previous tabulation of the meanings of houses, and to the schedule of the 28-year cycle, these two elements of personality and destiny can be easily ascertained — provided of course the exact birth-moment is known. The zodiacal position of the Sun (and its degree position) will show the quality of this integrative power in itself.
Take for instance Einstein's chart. The Sun is in the twenty-fourth degree of Pisces in the tenth house. Therefore the quality of the integrative power of his Self will be: synthesis, consummation, meditation and introspection. But the Sun being in the tenth house of public activity, profession, and of thinking (as a function of the individual selfhood), this power will operate through these tenth-house characteristics. The Sun's position also indicates that an intensification of the significant power of his destiny occurred when Einstein was in his twenty-second year, i.e., in 1901. Then he became inspector of patents in Berne, Switzerland; and it is probably about that time, a little after Planck's papers on the quantum theory were published, that at least the rudiments of the theory of relativity were developed. It was brought to the attention of the scientific world in 1905 — when Einstein's "point of self" came in conjunction with Pluto. Moreover the Sun's degree, which, as we already said, "gives a clue to the inherent creative significance of all activities and all focalizations," carries this most fitting symbol: "A small island in the midst of the ocean; its happy inhabitants have created a world of their own." What could be more significant in the chart of the man who even wrote of "island universes" and did create new cosmic vistas!
As another illustration we can give Queen Victoria's chart, which symbolizes not only a personality, but, by implication at least, also the era which carries her name. The Sun had just risen at birth and it was about an hour after the new moon in Gemini. Here we have a personality of rare intellectual gifts (Gemini), an era which had all the rigidity and narrow viewpoints of overemphasized intellectualism; which, moreover, saw the amazing growth of means of transportation and of travel — and of nervous disturbances. The twelfth-house meaning is shown in the fact that after her husband's death Queen Victoria lived in practical seclusion for most of her long life, and that she acted best when behind the scenes and through some great Prime Minister, as for instance Disraeli. The symbol of the Sun's degree gives the meaning of aristocracy and efficient strength of individuality. We may say that the whole Victorian era is a typical twelfth-house manifestation — a summing up, a period of karmic precipitation, the tail-end of a cycle prior to a strikingly new beginning, perhaps now about to manifest.
The most significant moment in her life came when, at the age of 56, plans were definitely made for the consecration of the British Empire and as an initial gesture her son was sent to India. Then her "point of self" had come to her Sun, and her personality had truly become a worldwide symbol, fully manifesting the power of her destiny — thus of her true Self. Her consecration as "Empress of India" came a year later, as the "point of self" was trine Jupiter, and in her first house. This and the Diamond Jubilee of 1897 (when "point of self" came to conjunction Jupiter in the tenth house) were the outer gestures of power. But the Queen's true selfhood is not to be found in them, but in the more concealed "backstage" moves which the twelfth-house lunation so aptly symbolizes.
Planets Referring to the Conscious
We are now considering the realm of the particular ego, which is the field of consciousness centered around the realization: "I am this or that." This realization by the conscious "I" that he is that particular being and no other is the first basic factor in the conscious life. Every living entity must first be itself as a definite exclusive form. This is the Saturn aspect. Then it must maintain itself, and such a factor of self-maintenance works out through the principle of compensatory action which is the foundation of all organic life. This is the Jupiter aspect. Finally it must reproduce itself through some sort of creative action — which refers astrologically to Mars.
These three planets (Saturn-Jupiter-Mars) are to be considered as the three positive or "masculine" planets, and for reasons which we shall consider later on, are paired with three other planets which are considered as negative or "feminine" planets: respectively — Moon, Mercury and Venus. The terms "masculine" and "feminine" are not particularly fortunate. It would be better to say that Saturn, Jupiter and Mars initiate life-processes. They act as causal agents; while the Moon, Mercury and Venus establish or vivify, complete or bring to definition these same processes. We shall therefore consider these six "planets of the conscious" as being three pairs, each pair being connected with one of the three basic life-operations above mentioned. The reason for this procedure will be explained more fully later, as to do so now would complicate matters unnecessarily.
Saturn-Moon. Saturn, in Greek mythology, is the ruler of the Golden Age, the first age of childhood and innocence. It refers to the first process whereby the universal life-force becomes differentiated, limited, particularized as a living cell — as the initial seed. Such a process of differentiation is the absolutely necessary condition for individual existence, that is, existence as a separate self-sufficient entity. Psychologically speaking, Saturn symbolizes, therefore, that process which leads to the realization: "I am." This may not be, however, such a simple realization as it may seem and has seemed to many. Thus the modern psychologist speaks of the "ego-complex," as previously defined: "A complex of representations which constitutes the center of my field of consciousness."(1)
Within the "field of consciousness" life flows; in other words, changes take place, energy is released in actions and reactions. This "psychic energy" which is contained and operates in the field of my consciousness (within the boundaries of my ego, set symbolically by Saturn) is represented astrologically by the Moon. The Moon is that portion of the Sun which is enclosed by Saturn — if such an astronomically peculiar sentence may be allowed. It is that portion of the life energy of the total being which I am aware of as myself, as the conscious ego which I am. Saturn refers to the abstract structure of this ego. The Moon pours into this structure "psychic energy" — and the result is a conscious entity, a particular living entity. The relation Saturn-Moon is therefore the relation: form-to-energy. Form conditions energy, though there is really a deep reciprocal action, which would be too long to discuss in such a brief survey.
Jupiter—Mercury. Jupiter is a much more mysterious symbol than most astrologers seem to believe. Its reputation as a sign of unalloyed good fortune does not appear to stand the test of psychological analysis, even though, in an abstract sense and ultimately, the process it symbolizes is always leading to an increase and expansion of consciousness — but at times through very dire ordeals. Jupiter is ordinarily opposed to Saturn as expansion is opposed to contraction. Saturn differentiates the particular entity out of the universal matrix of life. Jupiter brings to the bound ego that which will compensate its one-sidedness, and thus will make it once more whole and universal.
Jupiter's function can be best expressed in practical or analytical psychology by the term "compensation." The self-compensatory character of the psyche, as an organism, has been mentioned in our chapter dealing with analytical psychology. Jupiter refers thus to the anima and animus of Jung's theory. But it means more. It is the function of compensation in all its possible aspects. Marc Jones defines Jupiter as "the point of the soul's precipitation out from itself into tangible life and definite being." It shows "the point of expression of true selfhood, of the purpose of incarnation." This means also "compensation" in a metaphysical sense. Because the soul may be regarded as that which constantly strives for harmonization and integration, and the "purpose of incarnation," as the neutralization of past disharmonies and failures toward the establishment of harmony at a fully conscious level.
Jupiter is thus the power in us of right action, the voice of our true Destiny. Our conscious ego (Saturn-Moon) is the result of our past, the synthesis of our limitations and our ancestry. It is the present as the sum total of the past. But Jupiter is the future, pulling this present onward. It is the destiny which is to be ours, the destiny which will balance our past inadequacies, and fulfilling which we shall become whole. The soul and the ego are the two poles of a relation which operates by compensation. Thus for a masculine consciousness the soul, if projected as an image, is normally a woman — the Muse, the Eternal Feminine drawing us onward, etc. For a feminine consciousness the soul is the hero, the Christ-image, the Adonai, Siegfried the victorious, etc. It is always that which completes us, which makes us whole. It is also, for the devotee, the incarnate God, the savior, the spiritual teacher or guru: that divine personage who comes to us as representative of the Whole, however we may imagine this wholeness. Therefore Jupiter is God's path toward men. It is religion. It is ceremonial. It is also the King, as a symbol of the wholeness of the State, he whose justice and strength (ideally) compensate the weakness and failures of the citizen. In a Democratic state it is the Constitution.
Mercury makes the Jupiter function operative. And therefore it is intelligence, the vehicle of the soul. But alas! a vehicle which often throws off the divine Personage it carries and runs amuck, goaded by the moods of the Moon, or dominated by the separative crystallizing power of Saturn. Mercury as ruler of the nervous system brings sensation to the ego, that the ego may learn the lesson of relationship to the objects of the outer world. It unifies the reactions of the body. It is the servant of Zeus-Jupiter — but so often an unworthy messenger and a thief. The Moon, the feminine pole of Saturn, has moods and constantly changes. Mercury, which holds a similar relation toward Jupiter, is ever restless and molding itself upon the object of the sensation or the thought. Hindu yoga is largely a system of concentration by means of which the Jupiter function subdues the Mercury function.
If Jupiter assumes the position of an avenging God — if there is no other way to counteract Saturn's crystallizations — Mercury is likely to turn equally destructive and to shatter the Moon's tides; for Mercury is always more or less inimical to the Moon — unless Saturn has turned subservient to those functions of the unconscious which we shall presently study.
Mars—Venus. With this pair we deal with the centrifugal and centripetal forces of experience. Mars "shows the tendency of the life in expressing itself, moving from itself outward without particular regard for external conditions." It is "the first impulse of being in all outer revelation of self" (Marc Jones). In other words, it is the desire to move away from the center, the primordial Eros, the libido, as it flows outward through the psyche. It symbolizes all beginnings, all initiating impulses; self-projection as a release of sheer energy.
That which goes out from the psyche as Mars, returns to it as Venus. Venus is the effect experienced as a result of the way in which the outer world reacts to our Martian outgoing. The Martian impulse returns home filled with experiences, probably with bruises and possibly with wisdom. Venus is the end of the experience and what we have gathered as a result of it; thus it is the purveyor of consciousness, of knowledge and wisdom to the ego. It is symbolized by bees, because bees bring back to the hive the honey gathered from the flowers which are also the last product of the plant. It is therefore the symbol of all arts, of all social wisdom, of all that is matured out of experience. It also means emotions; because we get emotions, or effects, as a result of our outer contacts. Out of relationship arise joy or pain, songs or despair, art or sensuality. The soul of relationship is love. Mars-love is the love that is desire, self-projection, brute force toward self-reproduction in and through others, but with no regard for the others. Venus-love is the love that is wise, the love that arises from true interchange, from altruistic companionship: love-wisdom.
This, then, is the outline of the conscious trinity of basic life-powers, each active and reactive, which astrology symbolizes as Saturn-Moon, Jupiter-Mercury, Mars-Venus. Every living entity must first be itself as a definite form (Saturn); then it must maintain itself as a self-compensating system (Jupiter); finally it must reproduce itself through creative action (Mars). "Being" manifests through feelings (Moon); "maintenance" operates through intelligence or instinct (Mercury); "self-reproduction" is demonstrated in the power to bear children or ideas (Venus).
Thus the sphere of the conscious. We come now to the process whereby the conscious transcends or destroys itself.
Planet Referring to the Unconscious
The Personal Unconscious
The way in which the planets Neptune and Pluto have been discovered serves as a symbolical illustration of the relationship between conscious and unconscious. It was found that certain anomalies in the behavior of Uranus could be explained only by postulating the influence of another planet beyond its orbit. Such an influence was carefully measured, and the place of Neptune was approximately determined; after which astronomers were able to find this planet at the place thus analytically discovered.
The existence of many psychological anomalies, neuroses and supernormal states likewise led some psychologists to attempt to chart an unknown psychological realm the existence of which we have apprehended so far mostly by the way it upsets conscious behavior. It is apparent that our conscious ego is not always master of its house, that at times powers which seem to well up from nowhere or from some ancestral mist overwhelm our consciousness. Gone are our small categories and barriers; forgotten are our sense of self- preservation and our social training — and we move bewildered, swayed by deep commands, which are voiced by unrecognized forces.
C. G. Jung was perhaps the first of modern psychologists to recognize that the realm of these unknown forces was really a twofold one. In this he was merely following (unconsciously, perhaps) the ancient Kabbalistic tradition which speaks of a "memory of Nature," an "astral light" which is also twofold, lower and higher, deceitful and ensnaring in its lower portions, celestial and pure in its higher. Jung's interpretation of the personal and the collective unconscious is naturally very different outwardly from the occult teaching concerning the astral light; yet the latter may prove necessary some day to sustain and deepen the former.
As we have already seen, the personal unconscious is the sum total of repressed or submerged contents of a man's psyche. Freud began a study of this realm in which are hidden the seeds of neuroses, and to which we relegate all the feelings, thoughts, impressions which we refuse to admit to the shrine of our conscious being, and from which we shrink in fear, disgust or suppressed hatred. Life brought to us these psychic facts and filled them with vital energy; but instead of allowing this vital energy to spend itself in correlation with our ego, within the sphere of our conscious thinking, feeling and behavior, we turn back, as it were, the flow of this energy and push the disturbing thoughts or feelings, impressions or intuitions into dark caves where memory can no longer call them to the light of the conscious. There they may fester and decay, sending poisonous emanations into the conscious; or the subterranean pressure they exert may lead us unaware to deeds and thoughts bewildering to our conscious ego.
Astrology has probably no way of checking up these hidden and repressed contents of the personal unconscious, yet it contains in its symbolism certain factors which enable us to discern and analyze the action of the repressive tendencies which twist and dam up the normal flow of psychological functions. In other words, it can detect the backwash of the psychic energy from the conscious to the unconscious as it occurs in the psyche. It can determine the polarity of psychological functions, some of which act in a repressive and inward direction, others which operate in the normal way, from the center outward.
Here we come to the factor of planetary retrogression. Due to the fact that on the Earth we see the solar system from a somewhat peripheral point and not from the center, the other planets of the system move in apparently irregular manner. At times they appear to stand still, at others to move backward in the direction opposed to that of their normal course around the Sun. In the first case we speak of a stationary planet; in the second case, of a retrograde planet. Otherwise the planet's motion is direct. These geocentric characteristics of the planets (Sun and Moon not included, for they are always direct) are of great importance psychologically. Direct, retrograde, stationary: This trinity of modes of planetary motion corresponds to some very basic elements of what we may call psychological dynamics. Back of these types of motion we find the still more general factor of planetary speed (apparent speed, in this case). From the point of view of the earthly observer, the speed at which the planets move across the sky is constantly changing. These variations of speed correspond to variations in functional intensity of the psychological factors symbolized by the planets. The functional intensity varies as a result of many causes; but the speed-variations are at least one of these causes, symbolically speaking. This is especially demonstrable when we consider the speed-variations of Mercury and the Moon, but it applies to all planets.
The faster the speed, the more rapid the flow of psychic energy in and through the function considered. When the planet becomes stationary, the speed, of course, equals zero. The function symbolized is shown to have extreme stability. A peculiar kind of doggedness may well describe this condition. That particular factor in the conscious make-up of the person will not let go. It will resist change. It will offer a tremendous power of inertia. As it was in the beginning, so will it be ever after. Persons born with stationary planets will always present a characteristic of this nature. This of course will be emphasized if the stationary planet is also the ruler of the chart, or strongly placed. The corresponding psychological factor will quietly but stubbornly hold its own within the consciousness, whatever may happen.
Many examples could be given, but the difficulty is that usually the psychological characteristics depicted by a stationary planet are not obvious, except from the point of view of psychological analysis. The Saturn stationary in Richard Strauss' chart is a good illustration of strong egocentricity and of an equally strong sense of form. Its being in Libra gives an added artistic significance.
A stationary planet is said to be "stationary direct" or "stationary retrograde" according to the direction of its subsequent motion. In psycho-astrological analysis a planet can be considered stationary within a few minutes of the exact point at which it changes the direction of its course. The speed factor here involved is purely relative, and practically all that is required or useful to consider is whether the planet's speed is above average (in which case it is fast moving) or below average (slow moving).
Retrograde planets symbolize the turning back of the libido (psychic energy or life-force) from the conscious into the unconscious. If a planet is retrograde, the function it represents is not activated for conscious operation. The psychic contents related to this function, instead of emerging directly in the conscious and thus influencing directly our behavior, are thrown back temporarily into the unconscious. This does not mean necessarily that they are divested of their energy. They merge with other unconscious contents, and then reappear later in the consciousness through the agency of one of these functions of the unconscious, which we shall study presently. The latter correspond to the planets Uranus, Neptune and Pluto.
We may consider at first the planet Saturn, builder of the ego-complex. Through differentiation and isolation Saturn sets apart a certain amount of life-energy and binds it into a form. It builds walls to protect and differentiate the particular entity thus conditioned and isolated from its surroundings. Saturn, in other words, sets up a system of defense against the outside world by emphasizing the separate characteristics of the ego. "I am this particular attribute, and no one else is, or can touch it."
If Saturn is retrograde at birth, the native will not naturally and spontaneously experience or feel this. He will not feel it to be true especially with regard to the outer world. His Saturnian defense-mechanism will not be directed against the encroachments of the outer world — at least, not immediately and spontaneously. He will not feel himself fortified against the outer world — because the pattern of his conscious being is not very rigid. He will yield easily to external influences which will constantly tend to blur this pattern of his consciousness. He will be somewhat defenseless with regard to external contacts, and will appear shy, introverted, uneasy, and unself-assertive — or else he will take an arrogant attitude to shield his weak stand. His manners may then be abrupt and explosive.
Saturn retrograde will direct this pattern-crystallizing and will-making power inward. Self-assertion will be against inner influences. The person will yield outwardly, but show a great power of resistance against inner, unconscious suggestions. He will fortify himself spontaneously against impacts coming from the collective unconscious, from race tradition and collective standards. He will develop a sense of destiny, separating him inwardly from his fellowmen, while he will often be unable to resist the pressure of demands made upon him by friends and foes alike. He will be obdurately self-centered in his innermost self, while he may be unable to resist anyone asking favors or gifts.
It may also be that a man with Saturn retrograde finds himself mostly preoccupied with building or strengthening his growing individuality. The differentiating function then works inward, strengthening the magnetic field of the Self and crystallizing its contents into a form as yet unconscious. He will yield without, only to be better able to endure within. Such an astrological factor is found in persons who have to guard their individuality against psychic or religious or racial influences which are particularly strong in their immediate family environment. The enemy is in the unconscious, pressing from within. The past is menacing the present. The first psychological task is therefore one of inner self-protection and self-assertion. Thus the Saturn function operates inward, and its effect will usually be felt only indirectly in the consciousness and in the behavior, blended with other unconscious elements. Nicholas II, the last Czar of Russia, had Saturn retrograde. Ramakrishna, the great Hindu mystic, and the seer, Swedenborg, furnish other examples.
In such cases the Moon (polar opposite of Saturn) finds herself, as it were, unprotected. The Moon can never be retrograde; but because of moving around the Earth she is either within or without the Earth orbit. When within (nearer a solar conjunction), she operates more in connection with the solar energy of the Self. When without (nearer a solar opposition), the feelings are more "extraverted" or dominated by the objective mind. It might be said also that outside of the Earth's orbit the Moon follows the centrifugal pull of Mars, the planet of all beginnings; when inside, she gives in to the centripetal attractions of Venus, the planet of consummation and fulfillment. If the Moon is inside the Earth's orbit and Saturn is retrograde, the feelings are directed inward; we have a clear case of introversion. Love goes to an inner image rather than to actual and real persons. The feelings are in any case somewhat unprotected when Saturn is retrograde. They are not firmly anchored in, or they may cause much trouble to, the conscious ego.
When Jupiter is retrograde the function of soul-compensation is turned inward, affecting the consciousness almost exclusively through the unconscious, that is, by means of dreams and similar projections. If at the same time Uranus is strong, these projections from the unconscious can become extraordinarily vivid. If Jupiter is weak by sign position, this may mean that the compensation function is endowed with little energy; but if at the same time it is strong by house position, the compensation, though weak, is brought out constantly to the consciousness by the power of circumstances. This remark applies more or less to all planets. Aspects to other planets may, however, introduce other and contrary factors. Jupiter in an angular house (first, fourth, seventh, tenth) is typical of strength by house position. If direct, the native is consciously ruled by his Destiny, usually for a group-purpose. He may experience this inner power in the form of some great Personality leading him to appointed ends.
This may be so especially if Jupiter is retrograde. If stationary, the native is almost wholly subject to this ruling power. The Emperor of Austria, Francis Joseph, whose rule seems to have been the very center of precipitation of the karma of Europe, had, according to Alan Leo, Jupiter retrograde in the fourth house, square Mars on the Descendant. His was altogether an extraordinary chart. Bismarck also had Jupiter retrograde. Aristide Briand, the famous French Premier, had Jupiter and Saturn retrograde conjunct in his fourth house.
Mercury retrograde symbolizes a mind inwardly turned, either because of a mystical trend or because of a congenital slowness of perception and an inability to project thoughts outward. According to Marc Jones, the position of Mercury before and after the Sun represents respectively mental eagerness or deliberateness. "Mental chemistry" can be shown by linking these positions of Mercury together with the speed of the Moon's motion. Paul Clancy traced a parallelism between quickness of mind and the speed of Mercury's motion. Outwardly a retrograde Mercury may give a slow mind; but by no means necessarily so. It may just as well be a mind preoccupied mostly with the collective unconscious, the mind of a seer. Abdul Baha, whom the Bahai consider as a divine Personage, had Mercury and Saturn retrograde and in trine. Mercury was in Gemini six degrees ahead of the Sun; the Moon, in conjunction with the great star of Persia, Regulus, also trine Neptune in Aquarius. In other cases, we have the basis for peculiar mental complexes. An example of a vacillating mind is given by Louis XVI, the French king executed by the revolutionists. He had Mercury retrograde in exact conjunction with the Sun, also Saturn and Uranus retrograde.
Mars retrograde indicates that impulses to action do not flow outward from the ego into spontaneous expression, but move back to the unconscious where they become united with some unconscious contents (often collective images). It is the power inherent in the latter which really impels the native to action. Action does thus not arise from spontaneous, clearly conscious impulses, but from a more or less unconscious motivation. Among the several retrograde planets in the chart of Annie Besant, late leader of the Theosophical Society, we find Mars. Her acts often arose from motives hidden in the unconscious, whether personal or collective.
Such a condition may affect the sexual forces. They may be thrown back into the unconscious, forming complexes and neuroses. On the other hand, we may deal with a definite attempt to sublimate the desire-nature, as in the various yoga disciplines. In the case of Annie Besant, we note also that she became known first as an apostle of birth control.
With Venus retrograde we get a condition in which the fruits of experience are not brought to the conscious ego and normally assimilated or released through various types of emotions. There is often a strong lack of adjustment to the conditions of outer living. The emotional life is unsatisfied, and unconscious contents disturb the natural flow of consciousness and love. At times a strong emphasis on artistic creation is found, but this is usually colored by abnormal feelings. A desire for intoxicants may be connected with this. The romantic poet Alfred de Musset had Venus stationary retrograde.
Retrograde planets must not be asked to tell too much, for the reason that they indicate only the direction in which some psychological functions operate, but not what happens as a result of this backward flowing motion, which is to be judged on the basis of the chart as a whole. A boy and a girl instead of going to work at the factory, take the train and go to the city. We may know they have gone to the city; but that will not tell us how they will behave and what they will encounter in this city. Likewise we know that when a planet is retrograde the function it symbolizes does not operate in the so-called normal way. The psychic energy used by this function goes in the direction of the unconscious. What will happen to it there depends upon all the other factors of the chart.
The Collective Unconscious
In the planets studied so far we have found a means of analyzing the make-up and constitution of the individual human being as he functions in the midst of the collectivity of which he is a part. Family, nation, race, religious group, club, trade union and factory are various types of collectivity. The individual acts in their midst and may help to create or transform them. But they also act upon the individual. If he shrinks from contacts and experiences within the collectivity, he becomes inhibited and acquires complexes or special attitudes which retrograde planets, together with other astrological elements, help us to analyze.
If the individual faces normally his group and society in general, then society influences him. The collective in him, that which is identical in all the men of his group, imposes upon the individual its ageless standards. Society gets hold of the individual through his instincts and traditions. Primordial images beat upon the inner walls of his consciousness, asking admittance. These images may be divine or they may be devilish. They are the voice of wholeness compelling the individual parts of the whole to take heed. The undertones of this collective voice are dark and possessive; its high overtones are vibrations of light, songs of liberated souls that draw upward toward the final goal of Man.
This voice of the collective, insofar as it acts upon individuals, is symbolized by the trinity of remote planets: Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. It is significant that these have become publicly known at a time when humanity is breaking through isolating barriers of creeds and dogmas, and, materially if not yet spiritually, all men flow into the ocean of a common humanity. Uranus became known as the American and French Revolutions broke the weight of feudalism and medievalism; Neptune, as humanitarianism and a rebirth of the religious spirit (or of its opposite pole, materialism), swept the world; Pluto, as mankind is getting on its way toward new structures of social relationships.
In the life of the individual these planets act in various ways and in widely varying degrees of intensity. The more universal or "whole-ward" the consciousness, the more constructive and effective the action of these planetary agents of wholeness. In the unregenerate they may either remain individually ineffective, or else become symbols of the destruction of the enshelled ego. In any case they come to the individual ego as forces from the beyond of consciousness, bearing messages, striking blows, or causing in him whom the gods have condemned spiritual blindness and insanity. They may symbolize the spiritual apex of collective humanity — whether it be called the Church Triumphant, the assembly of the Blessed, or the White Lodge of Initiated Adepts. They may also stand for what the newspapers call "society," or else for the power of the mob. They may be the agents of those collective forces which men learn to know under the name of religion. They may even speak of cosmic events beyond our solar system, and bring to the initiated tidings from our galaxy and forebodings from the spaces beyond. In any case they are wholeness speaking to the individual particles.
If we limit ourselves to the psychological approach and the relationship of the collective unconscious to the particular ego, we say that Uranus is the projective power of the unconscious, Neptune, its dissolving power, and Pluto, its regenerating power. Uranus brings to the conscious symbolical representations and impulses. This may occur in dreams or in waking consciousness. Under Uranus come the inspirations of the poet, the artist, the inventor, the scientist, the statesman, and the religious reformer. Uranus is characterized by its image-forming power. It regenerates the conscious by bringing to it vistas of the whole, images and ideas of the universal Mind. Strictly speaking, it does not "regenerate." Instead, it projects images and ideas which have the power to transform, which are seeds of the new consciousness. Transformation and creation are keywords of this revolutionary planet which constantly pours new dynamic quanta into the heart of the ego upsetting, stimulating, stirring, disrupting, the soul of divine discontent, the madness of the anarchist and of the lawless. Genius or insanity; inspiration or perversion.
Neptune acts in more subtle and mysterious ways. It eats up like a strong acid the crystallizations of the ego, ever calling the particular and the bound to the limitless state of the universal. It is the insistent, compassionate, overflowing love of the whole for the separate part which may not even know it is a "part" — a love which can be most tender, yet which usually is so filled with cosmic horizons and universal dispassion that our limited, narrow feelings recoil before it in subtle awe. Neptune is the man transfigured by the Christ within; but he may be also the man lost in an "artificial paradise," asking of drugs that he be led beyond the jail of normal perception and daily routine into the realm of dreams and visions.
Every force which denies limitations and tends to make us whole, which saps the strength of the particular viewpoint and injects into it the fluid of unearthly desires; every agency which dissolves crystallizations and puts the lens of the ego out of focus, which stirs us with divine longings through days of second puberty and enravishes us away from family and home into the snow-white peace of convents or to the living fermentation of the jungle — all belong to the Neptune symbol.
Physiologically speaking, the bodily part ruled by the zodiacal sign in which Neptune is posited lacks differentiation and focalized growth. It appears undeveloped. The life-energy did not succeed in making itself concrete enough. Where Uranus is placed we often find, on the contrary, abnormal growth, over-fullness of a sort; not so much an abundance of life-force as a peculiar tension of energy which creates genius or freaks. Neptune is the symbol of the sea, of the undifferentiated, of cosmic matter in the prenatal stage, or of nirvana and infinite compassion. It shows how society acts upon the individual; whereas Uranus indicates more the fecundating power of the individual, how he acts upon society, constructively or destructively. Neptune's keynotes are redemption, universalization, or unfocalization.
Pluto is the planet of the second birth, ruler of the Mysteries — of every type of group-assembly, of parliamentary organization in which new policies are decided upon for the collectivity, or of ceremonial through which the individual and society are readjusted according to the outworking of a new law of being. Jupiter deals also with governing bodies and with religious ceremonies — but within the limits set by Saturn. In other words, Jupiter symbolizes racial gods and religion based upon kinship and blood relationship. It stands for hierarchy and autocracy — political or religious — this, because Saturn has first of all set the ego, the One, as a ruler within certain boundaries. Jupiter acts within these boundaries. The rule of Zeus follows that of Chronos-Saturn. Jupiter as the guru, the spiritual teacher or religious guide, involves elements of personal relationship.
On the other hand, Pluto is strictly impersonal and recognizes no personal God or King; only an elected chairman, as it were. Its King is the Law. It is ruthless and absolutely just — but just in terms of a Law which often transcends our limited understanding, and may seem cruel. Pluto relates the ego to a greater center of being, part conscious, part unconscious. It leads to what C. G. Jung calls the Self, the totality of the being. It symbolizes the final stage of the process of individuation, the second birth, the "making perfect," initiation, the "birth of the Living God." For Pluto is God-in-the-depths, God made concrete and actual within and at the center of personality. Thus the personality becomes transfigured into a Living Person. In this sense Pluto is the symbol of the Incarnation of God, of the Apostolic Brotherhood, reflection of the cosmic zodiacal order; of the White Lodge on Earth.
Pluto represents the Law of the whole-Self in opposition to the law of the particular ego (Saturn-Jupiter). His reign comes after this ego has been impregnated with Uranian seed-ideas and archetypes, and has lost all its resistance and its pride through the Neptunian baptism. Then Pluto, having judged the ego in the scales in which are balanced conscious and unconscious, concrete and abstract, particular and universal, initiates it into the Company of the Perfect. His keynote is therefore rebirth; also the concretization of the All into the universal One.
Of all the astrological signs which have been suggested as symbols (or causes) of the Great War, only one seems valid. Pluto was in conjunction with the summer solstice in June 1914, and had apparently come to his first conjunction for a brief time during September, 1912, at which time the Balkan War was being planned. The summer solstice is the point of cosmic fecundation. Life becomes concrete in the womb. The mystery of the "shedding of blood" may also accompany vast cosmic fecundations — or initiations.
Pluto was entering Capricorn in 1761-62. It was close to the time which Swedenborg mentioned as being that of the descent to earth of the "New Jerusalem." From this time on the American Revolution was taking shape. In 1938 Pluto will enter Leo. This could mark the beginning of a new era. According to the Pyramid number-symbolism this era began September 16, 1936.
The fact that the coming upon the astrological scene of Neptune and Pluto corresponded to the time when different aspects of the unconscious gained public recognition is interesting. Pluto was discovered exactly 84 years (cycle of Uranus) after Neptune (1846). In 1848 Europe witnessed a great revolutionary upheaval. It is the date of Marx's Communist Manifesto. It marks the beginning of the spread of Spiritualism. The great spiritual movement, Bahaism, was initiated in 1844. In every way it was a time of religious enthusiasm and of humanitarian ideals — truly a Neptunian time. Likewise, Uranus became known in the midst of the revolutionary era that aroused all the Western world to a realization of new archetypes of social relationship. Pluto was sighted January 21, 1930, as the Sun entered the sign of Aquarius. The decade thus ushered in promises to vie in importance with those which made Uranus and Neptune known. The ideals of the New Deal are typically Plutonic, insofar as we have in this New Deal an attempt at including all social classes in an integral type of organization in which the two factors of individualism and collectivism will be harmonized. Neptune makes whole, but it also leads to formlessness. Pluto brings the message of concrete form, of organization. If often we see it as disorganization, it is because we can discover only the first stage of the process. The Great War meant disorganization; yet it tested the power of men to organize on a scale never dreamt of before. It taught efficiency and precision. It created the machinery which man may use constructively if he so desires.
It is not at all improbable that under the regime of Pluto, as Paul Clancy suggests, concrete and scientific proofs of human immortality will be forthcoming. Alice Bailey announces the same; and there is no doubt that Pluto deals with all the concrete manifestations of the new order.
Uranus, Neptune, Pluto symbolize processes which bring the unconscious and its subliminal powers to the threshold of the consciousness and the ego. They are thus intermediaries between the Solar system proper and the galaxy. Comets are also intermediaries, but of a more fleeting quality. We can conceive the unconscious in terms of an accumulation of both personal and collective conscious contents; in fact we must do so, if we consider consciousness as bound to physical organisms. But the occultist will of course claim that the collective unconscious is the product as much of superhuman and super-terrestrial Beings as of the past generations of men. He will consider the fixed stars astrologically as symbols of such cosmic entities as the awakened intuition may dimly sense beyond the realms known to human minds. Uranus, Neptune, Pluto are thus links between the stars and the intra-Saturnian planets — between the "gods" and men.
There remains one more point to be touched upon: What is the significance of the three remote planets when retrograde? It is probable that what is indicated is a return-action of the collective element to the collectivity, but with the added power of the individual to make it effective in a new way. To put it more clearly: Sooner or later races and groups always degenerate. The individuals composing these collectivities fail to act in accord with the deepest instincts and the archetypal truths which belong to mankind, biologically or spiritually. Out of all the sum total of these particular failures comes a general perversion or decadence of the collectivity. A race or nation or religious group falls into evil ways, crystallizes or disintegrates. What individuals caused, individuals must readjust. Reformers arise who proclaim the ancient forgotten truths, probably under a new garb. These men are led by the living spirit of collective humanity to reform the sick body of the collectivities of which they are parts. This reforming action of the collectivity by the collectivity, through the individual, is symbolized by the retrograde motions of Uranus, Neptune, Pluto.
Uranus "direct" reforms or rather transforms the conscious ego; when "retrograde," what is symbolized is the reform of the unconscious, of the hidden depths from which the ego emerges. In some cases it may mean that all the dark closets are being aired and family skeletons are being thrown out; in others, it means that the man is actually the agent for some sort of reforming impulse which is to change the mind of his race or group. The Uranian images he projects are impregnated first of all with an iconoclastic energy. They will not only challenge the conscious of the race, but generate storms in the unconscious. Neptune retrograde is found often where religious shams are unearthed and denounced; where inner subconscious pride is subtly annihilated. Mystics often have such a factor prominent in their charts, especially if they stand positively against beliefs of their day. As for Pluto retrograde, one can only surmise that it would tend to let loose organized destruction — this, in an individual chart, might be connected with a peculiar protest against the established order of society.
The Solar System As Personality
Our approach so far has dealt with purely psychological factors, and we have considered planets as symbols which would enable us to chart the three main types of activity characteristic of any life-organism: activities determining what the organism is, how it maintains itself, how it reproduces itself. Then we studied problems arising from the repression of natural organic activities as symbolized in retrograde planets. Lastly we analyzed the three modes of activity by means of which the particular ego is able to transcend itself and to partake of the character of universality. The Saturn-image which is the foundation of particular ego-hood then fades into a type of representation Plutonic in character. The Jupiter mode of compensatory activity gives way to a Neptunian process of sublimation. The Mars type of self-reproduction is superseded by Uranian creativeness.
If, however, we approach the subject from a reverse direction, that is, starting from an analysis of the solar system as a whole and projecting the result thereof into our physio-psychological experience, we get a more logical and more ordered picture. Our concept of personality broadens and assumes cosmic perspectives. The whole solar system, seen as a complex life-organism, becomes a cosmic personality. However, we must carefully avoid the mistake of losing our base of operation: the Earth. "Cosmic" as we may be, we are always and forever rooted in the Earth. The only solar system we know is that which is seen through the Earth atmosphere and by means of earthly senses and instruments. We know nothing in fact beyond the Earth and the reactions which the Earth experiences from outside. We must always remain Earth centered, because as long as we operate through Earth-born vehicles of consciousness, refined as these may be, all our experiences are conditioned by the quality of our planet, and all the vital symbols which we may conceive, being necessarily interpretations and extensions of these experiences, must be grounded in the viewpoint of the Earth and of Man as a planetary being.
If, therefore, we speak of the solar system, it is as it appears to the scientific investigator, spreading on each side of the path described yearly by the Earth. There are celestial bodies within the confines of the Earth's orbit and there are some outside of it. It is true that the Sun is demonstrably one of the foci of this elliptical Earth-orbit, and also of all other planetary orbits. But all it means is that we, human observers, are not at the center of the system to which, we know enough now to realize, we belong as a mere planet. This fact of our knowing that the Sun is the center of the system, and not the Earth, does not make a truly heliocentric point of view legitimate. We know this fact intellectually, yet all our experiences are necessarily Earth-centered. In other words, I, the ego, know now that the field of my consciousness (my own Earth) is not the center of my total being. I assume that there is a Self which, Sun-like, is the center of this total being. Yet I do not experience as a Self, but only as an ego. I postulate the possibility of an identification of this ego with the Self. But if I did experience such an identification I would no longer be an ego-centered personality. I would be a divine Personage — with a solar vehicle of consciousness — whatever it may mean. It may be that there are divine Personages operating through an Earth-born body, but if so, the personality rooted in that body and perceived by ordinary man is not their true Personality. And thus we cannot profitably discuss a "Solar Personality" which we as Earth-beings will never experience fully; neither is there any validity in assuming a Sun-centered point of view as the basis of a system of symbolical life-interpretation. Our cosmic flights must start from and end on the Earth — or else they must remain dreams and speculations without vital meaning.
Let us, therefore, consider the solar system, from the point of view of the Earth and of Man, as a planetary whole. We shall divide the solar system into that part which is contained inside of the Earth-orbit and that part which is outside of the Earth-orbit. Inside the Earth-orbit we find the inner planets Venus, Mercury and the Sun; outside of it, the outer planets Mars-Jupiter-Saturn and Uranus-Neptune-Pluto. The relative positions of these planets within these two celestial realms will give to each planet its essential symbolical meaning; for, let us repeat it again and again, the basic meanings of the planets belong to them by the logic of their positions in relation to the Earth and by virtue of their astronomical characteristics, such as speed of revolution and rotation, mass, color, number of satellites, etc. In other words, Venus has a certain basic meaning simply because it is the first planet between the Earth and the Sun. Likewise there can be no doubt as to the basic meaning of Pluto, because this meaning is derived from its position, orbital characteristics, etc. Of course such a meaning is both very basic, and very abstract or general — as abstract or general almost as the meanings of the numbers 2 and 3. Therefore, in applying this meaning to the interpretation of particular nativities, statistics and accumulated experience are absolutely invaluable. They do not, however, give birth to the basic meaning.
This is particularly important when we consider the Moon as an astrological factor. For the ancients, the Moon was the handmaid of the Sun, the secondary "light" that shone by night. The entire symbolism of Sun and Moon was built on these data of experience concerning the light of Sun and Moon, and the physio-psychological correlations established between sunlight (day, warmth, etc.) and moonlight (night, mystery, fear, etc.).
Such correlations are no longer the main generators of significance in terms of modern scientific knowledge and behavior. For one thing, artificial light has changed night into day, and modern city living has made of office-days a sort of night. But deeper than this, the attribution of meaning to the planets (and to all astrological factors) must now be established upon what, to us modern men, is our basic knowledge — scientific, intellectual knowledge.
From this astronomical point of view, the Moon occupies a special place indeed as the satellite of the Earth. Revolving monthly around the Earth, it is found half of the time within the Earth-orbit, half of the time outside of it. As a result of this the Moon is the link between the inner and the outer realms of the solar system; between the inner and the outer planets. Because of this function of linkage it appears constantly changing in its aspects. It has phases, waxing and waning tides; a definite dualistic rhythm. At New Moon, the Moon is at its innermost point within the Earth-orbit. At Full Moon, it is at its outermost point outside of the Earth-orbit — subjectivity and objectivity.
Previously, as we studied the planets in pairs, we said that the Moon was the feminine counterpart of Saturn. But such a statement, while true in a certain sense, must not be taken as definite. There is a "mystery" connected with the Moon, and it has to do with the change which took place (potentially at least) at the close of the archaic ages (around 600 B.C.). If, now, we study the solar system from the point of view of the Earth-orbit, and if we proceed to pair the outer and the inner planets, we shall have the following result:
Mars and Venus standing on each side of the Earth become polar opposites; so do Jupiter and Mercury; then Saturn and — the Sun. Before we discuss what the Sun signifies here, let us repeat that the outer planets are positive in the sense of referring to the causes of the activities represented by the pairs; while the inner planets refer to results, and are thus called negative. Mars symbolizes the initiating and impulsive power that starts all life-activities; Venus, the consummating, concluding, fruit-bearing energy which closes up all cycles of activity. Jupiter symbolizes the power of circulation within every organic whole and that which expands them from within and which makes them whole. Mercury is the nervous system, and later the power of thought which consolidates and becomes the vehicle of the Jupiterian power. Saturn is the original power which starts every life-manifestation by isolating from the undifferentiated ocean of life a particular fragment thereof, and which, by building a wall around this fragment, enables it to be a separate independent entity.
Then what of the polar opposite of Saturn? Logically it ought to be the Sun. But there has also been a great deal of talk about, even an ephemeris of, an intra-Mercurial planet, Vulcan. We do not know whether or not Vulcan exists. But one cannot base astrological significance on merely possible astronomical facts. Vulcan may exist. But, whether it exists or not, what it stands for, as significance, can be attributed much more satisfactorily to the photosphere of the Sun. Occultists have said that we do not know the real Sun, that what we see is only, as it were, the light that comes through an open window. This light constitutes what may be called the surface of the Sun, the actively radiant part of the Sun. Actually it is all that we know of the Sun, sensorially and physically. It is the source of "solar vibrations;" and those mean to us, life and light. Saturn sets the boundaries of every particular living organism and thus helps to focalize within these boundaries, as if through a lens, the diffuse light of interstellar or galactic space. The Sun is, in a sense, the lens itself. The photosphere is the totality of the light and heat rays which are focalized and which fill in the boundaries of the living organism. Saturn differentiates. The photosphere makes the differentiated entity alive.
Thus we have a two-fold trinity of inner-outer planets. Each of these planets stands for a polarity of triune life: three positives and three negatives. What is the "seventh"? — for, we are told in all philosophies, the great number of all life-manifestations is 7. The seventh is that which correlates the opposite polarities. It is that which, moreover, collects these polar energies and distributes them through a cyclic tidal process to the living organism. It is the Moon.
Without the Moon, there would be no interchange, no relationship between the inner and outer planets. There would be no flow of energies within and through the Earth. On each side of the Earth, the planets stand. But it is the Moon which collects their energies as it shuttles back and forth between innermost and outermost. Having collected and blended them, it distributes them to the Earth. It feeds the Earth with these energies.
Thus the Moon is the womb and the mother of the Earth. It is the lymphatic fluid. It is the watery flow, the sap within the plant. It collects all cosmic forces and distributes them to the embryo within its womb. It collects all mineral salts of the soil and distributes them to the entire plant. It is the placenta orbitally surrounding the Earth, as the placenta surrounds the embryo. The Moon may indeed be called "she" — the mother. She is the mother-force, the waters of life. But she is also the possessive mother-love that stifles and enwombs the child, drawing him back to the cradle, psychologically: — the mother-complex, the thralldom of feelings and sentimentality.
Yet we have touched only the fringe of the garment. Is there only one inner planet and one outer planet? Here the "mystery of the Moon" begins to open. For there must, of course, be one "Moon," one linking agency, for every polar duality. We saw that there are three pairs of planets, three basic powers of life (being a self; maintaining oneself; reproducing oneself) in every living organism. Then there must be three "Moons," and our physical Moon is only the agency which links the closest planetary pair, that of Mars and Venus. Because it is the closest it is the most visible, the most obvious, the most outwardly and consciously compelling; the source of our most patent desires and feelings. But there must be also a "Moon" to correlate the couple Jupiter-Mercury and distribute their harmonized energies to the Earth; and again a "Moon" to distribute to us the correlated energies of Saturn and the photosphere.
But where are those "Moons"? — the reader may ask. Perhaps there are no actual celestial physical masses of substance which would fill the office of the two "higher Moons" above mentioned. Perhaps they exist in an invisible state, reflecting light too much toward the infrared or ultraviolet to be visible. Perhaps it is these "higher Moons" which "clairvoyants" have seen and have taken for planets revolving around the Sun. Perhaps the "mystery-planet" behind the Moon is the next "higher Moon." There are many "perhapses." But what of it?
What we are speaking of are cycles of motion and of distribution of energy. One of these cycles is operating with or through our visible Moon, and is approximately a 28-day cycle. Another of these cycles is beginning to be known as a 40-month cycle, affecting financial changes and the heat of the Sun. Another cycle is the well-known "sun-spots cycle" of eleven years plus. All such cycles are really cyclic paths of circulating energy (or abstract correlations of motion — if one prefers to be more abstract). Whether they operate through the agency of a physical body such as our Moon, or through some flow of magnetic particles tidal in its effects — there is no difference as far as astrological symbolism is concerned. What counts in the cyclic activity is the flow of "something" that the astrologer can relate symbolically to a life-function (collective and social as well as individual). What the "something" is, whether a solid planet or a tide of electric particles, or even an abstraction pure and simple — this should be but of slight importance to the astrologer. It belongs to the astronomer to find out all the scientific facts about it.
The following sketch may help to make clear how and where schematically of course — the "Moons" operate. The first (our physical Moon) links the orbs of Mars and Venus, and has a period of approximately 28 days. It refers to the realm of physical action and physiological procreation. It represents all the "feelings" connected with that realm. It vitalizes all things, even those most remotely connected with sex, and all creative activity insofar as such activity has a material concrete basis of manifestation through bodily motions (all fine arts, as they involve muscular activity of one kind or another). It vitalizes therefore, almost exclusively, the man and woman functioning at an instinctual and physiological stage. It operates, moreover, in and through the cycle of growth and decay of all biological organisms.
The second "Moon" links the orbs of Jupiter and Mercury, collects and distributes their energies to the Earth. The period of this activity is probably 40 months. The number is significant and links the cycle with the gestation cycle of 40 weeks. This number 40 is found most frequently in Biblical symbolism, and refers to a period of tribulation and interior formation (as the gestation period is, of course). Even of late, Abdul Baha, leader of the Bahai cause, is said to have been imprisoned in Akka (which means "womb") for 40 years: a symbol of the formation of the new spiritual era entered in after his death, or at his birth.
It seems that the 40-month cycle has two meanings, just as Jupiter has two meanings: 1) spiritual — referring to processes of Soul-growth and psycho-mental development or "initiation"; 2) financial — as a mean cycle of 20 months up and 20 months down, accounting for movements in prices and volume of transactions (Cf. T. O. McGrath, "Solar Radiation and Business Activity," in the Bulletina April-May-June, 1934). Interestingly enough, the Jupiter symbol is really a number 4 figure. It might also be added that the asteroids between Mars and Jupiter might be the result of the explosion of such a "Moon" to which some traditions perhaps refer as "Lucifer."
The third "Moon" links the orb of Saturn and the photosphere of the Sun. It refers to the "sun-spot cycle" of 11.2 years. According to H. P. Blavatsky, this cycle measures the heartbeats of the solar system, its "blood-circulation." This cosmic-magnetic "blood" flows from the photosphere to Saturn (the limit of the solar system considered as a strict unit) in five years; comes back to the photosphere in five more years, and circulates within the Sun itself for one more year. The 11-year cycle refers to definite magnetic changes in the human body — to conditions within the spine. It probably refers also to the process of dynamic spiritual integration, known in Eastern occultism as "the Kundalini process." It links the Saturn center at the base of the spine to the multi-petalled "lotus" on the top of the head — the "halo" of saints and buddhas — truly a photosphere or corona of the "spiritual sun" within the head.
We must come now to consider the outermost planets, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. If we still take the Earth orbit as a hinge, we shall see that these universalistic planets are balanced only within the very "heart of the Sun."
In our previous discussion, "The Sun as Integrator," we wrote that the Sun represents the power of the Self — not the Self itself. This integrating power of the Self operates first of all, during the development of Man's psyche, within the Saturn-defined boundaries of the conscious. Saturn plus Sun-power (photosphere) constitute the "I am" — Saturn is "I" and Sun-power is "am" — always considering our Earth-centered solar system as a "cosmic personality."
Then the Saturnian "I" becomes transcended through the triune life process symbolized by Uranus-Neptune-Pluto. These three planets represent what Jung calls the "Not-I," that which must be assimilated by the "I." As this assimilation takes place, the "cosmic personality" expands; better still, it experiences a repolarization or "conversion." Within the "heart of the Sun" arises a transfigured "I," and this "I" finds his "am" in the power of the trinity Uranus-Neptune-Pluto. This planetary trinity constitutes the process by means of which the "cosmic personality" finds itself linked to the vaster astronomical whole, let us say, the galaxy.
One might ask: But what is really meant by the "heart of the Sun"? It is the Self. And the Self is the wholeness of the fulfilled and integrated personality — an abstraction. And yet even this abstraction is susceptible of being concretely symbolized in terms of the next vaster whole. We might thus say that the "heart of the Sun" in terms of the (Earth-centered) galactic whole is the star which (within our galaxy) is located exactly behind the Sun. This, however, has hardly any practical significance for us, ordinary men!
What has significance, however, is the idea that there is a cycle of linkage between the Uranus orb and the "heart of the Sun:" a fourth "Moon." This cycle is the 28-year cycle of individual selfhood, which, repeated three times (once for each of the three outermost planets), give the time of the symbolical "building of the Temple of Sol-o-Mon" (the Sun of Man): 84 years — the period of Uranus' revolution around the Sun. Two 28-year cycles (one 56-year) constitute, according to Mr. McGrath, the major business cycle. This cycle equals three nodal cycles of 18.6 years each and five sunspot cycles of 11.2 years each. Such correspondences throw light upon the significance of Neptune, when fully understood; as the sidereal period of Neptune equals three 56-year periods.
All these cycles, which can be considered as higher "Moons," are most important in the study of "cosmic personality:" for they symbolize "functions of linkage" between the soul-energies which, when fully integrated, are the substance of this "cosmic personality:" so conveniently symbolized for us by the complex pattern of the solar system as understood from the Earth. Such "functions of linkage" were held esoteric and mysteriously sacred in archaic cosmo-psychology. Thus the "mystery of the Moon."
This mystery, for the ancients, resided in the attribution of the Moon as a polar opposite to Saturn. When mankind was functioning purely at the physiological level, and mind was hardly an independent factor or a basis for the focalization of life-energies, then it was indeed the Moon which, as the Mother-force, animated the egos (the Saturnian boundaries) of men. Men are still, psychologically, within the womb of the Mother — and this at the physiological-instinctual (Mars-Venus) level of operation. But as men become mentally polarized and rise out of the psychological Mother-womb into the realm of pure energy and independent thought, then they become progressively filled with the power of the solar photosphere. Their Saturnian egos become illumined, and the ''higher Moon:'' Lucifer (i.e., Light Bearer), "bears light" to them, the light of the correlated Jupiter and Mercury. A next step in spiritual development will make them illumined by the power of the Kundalini Moon (Isis?) linking Saturn and the solar photosphere; another step will see them vitalized by the correlation Uranus-Sun (Osiris?). We believe that the "mystery-planet behind the moon" was no planet, but this second "Moon" which we called Lucifer — the Jupiter-Mercury link. The asteroids are the remnants — or are they not rather the prenatal condition? — of this Lucifer. May not the myriads of asteroids be a symbol of the scattered state of men's psycho-mental energies, or soul-forces? The Great Work of the spirit is the integration of these scattered soul-forces into a spiritual organism, a "temple of the living God." Thus every man must integrate within himself these "asteroids" and make them into a "Moon" through which the power of soul (Jupiter) and the power of mind (Mercury) will be correlated and made cyclically operative.
After this preliminary work of psycho-mental integration, concentration, or yoga, will come a further stage — symbolized by Kundalini-Isis. The veil of Isis is then to be lifted by the candidate to initiation. Man finds himself surrounded by the halo of the living God, by the multi-flamed radiance of the Corona. Finally man himself becomes a Sun. His heart beats in unison with the "heart of the Sun."
The physical moon represents normal mankind today. The three "higher Moons" stand for the three stages of Masonic initiation: Apprentice — Companion — Master. These stages symbolize ritualistically the three basic phases of the process of personalityintegration — of the gestation of the "Living God," the Christ-child, within the psyche.
1. Psychological Types, p. 540.
The Astrology of Personality