Joseph Campbell



1. Grimnismal 23, translated by Henry Adams Bellows, The Poetic Edda (American-Scandanavian Foundation, Oxford University Press, 1923), 93.

2. Voluspa, 59-62; Bellows, Poetic Edda, 24-25, abridged.

3. The recognition of this number in the Book of Revelation I owe to the Icelandic scholar Einar Palsson, whose Roetur (slenskrar menningar), The Roots of Icelandic Culture, 7 vols. [Reykjavik: Mimir, 1969-85]) argues that the culture of Pagan/Celtic-Christian Iceland during the period ca. A.D. 870-1000 was of a piece with that of contemporary medieval Europe and not, as has been commonly supposed, of a separate and distinct, specifically Nordic source and context. His argument has been summarized in English in three brief monographs: The Dome of Heaven: The Marking of Sacred Sites in Pagan Iceland and Medieval Florence (Reykjavik: Mimir, 1981), Hypothesis as a Tool in Mythology, (Mimir, 1984), and Celtic Christianity in Pagan Iceland (Mimir, 1985).

4. For this dating of the tablet, see Samuel Noah Kramer, Sumerian Mythology (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1944), 9. 

5. I have followed primarily Arno Poebel, Historical Texts (Philadelphia: University Museum, Publications of the Babylonian Section, vol. 4, no. I, 1914), 17-20, but with considerable help from the later renditions by Stephen Herbert Langdon, Semitic Mythology, vol. 5 of The Mythology of All Races, 13 vols. (Boston: Marshall Jones, 1931), 17-20, and Samuel Noah Kramer, From the Tablets of Sumer (Indian Hills, CO: Falcon's Wing Press, 1956), 179-81.

6. Julius (Jules) Oppert, "Die Daten der Genesis," Konigliche Geseltschaft der Wissenschaften zu Gottingen, Nachrichten, no. 10 (May 1877): 201-27.

7. Samuel Noah Kramer, The Sumerians (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963), 42.

8. Ibid., 59.

9. Ibid., 59-68.

10. Ibid., 144-45.

11. Ibid., 42.

12. Alain Danielou, Shiva et Dionysos (Paris: Librairie Artheme Fayard, 1982); English translation by K. E Hurry, Shiva and Dionysus (New York: Inner Traditions International, 1984), 20-23.

13. Kramer, Sumerians, 4041.

14. Marija Gimbutas, The Goddesses and Gods of Old Europe, 7000-3500 B.C. (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1974), 195.

15. Ibid., 196.

16. Danielou, Shiva and Dionysus, 32.

17. Apuleius, The Golden Ass, translated by W. Adiington, book II.

18. Kramer, Sumerians, 122.

19. The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna, translated by Swami Nikhilananda (New York: Ramakrishna-Vivekananda Center, 1942), 336.

20. Gimbutas, Goddesses and Gods, 196.

21. Mundaka Upanishad .1.7.

22. Vedantasara 56.

23. Gimbutas, Goddesses and Gods, 38.

24. Ibid., 89.

25. Ibid., 236.

26. Ibid., 19-34.

27. Ibid., 85-87.

28. Kramer, Sumerians, 93.

29. Ibid., 94.

30. Kenneth H. Cooper, M.D., M.PH., Aerobics (New York: Bantam Books, 1968), 101.

31. Arthur Avalon (Sir John Woodroffe), The Serpent Power, 3d rev. ed. (Madras: Ganesh, 1931), 215.

32. H. V Hilprecht, The Babylonian Expedition of the University of Pennsylvania, Series A: Cuneiform Texts, vol. 20, pt. I (University of Pennsylvania, University Museum, 1906), 31.

33. Alfred Jeremias, Das Alter derbabylonischen Astronomic (Leipzig:}. C. Hinrechs'sche Buchhandlung, 2 Aufl., 1909), 68, note 1.

34. Ibid., 71-72.

35. D. R. Dicks, Early Greek Astronomy to Aristotle (lthaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1970), 62-63.

36. Alain Danielou, Introduction to the Study of Musical Scales (London: India Society, 1943), 7. Text italics, mine.

37. Li Chi 28.97-99, translated by Derk Bodde, in Fung Yu-lan, A History of Chinese Philosophy, 2 vols. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1952), 1:343.

38. Tung Chung-shu, translated by Danielou, Introduction to the Study of Musical Scales, 6-7, Andre Preau, "Lie Tseu," in La Voile d'lsis (Paris: Chacornac), no. 152-53 (1932), 554-55.

39. Danielou, Introduction to the Study of Musical Scales, 12.

40. Tao Te Ching 42, translated by James Legge, Sacred Books of the East, edited by F. Max Muller, vol. 39, The Texts of Taoism, part I, p. 85.

41. La Vita Nuova II, III and XXX, abridged, translated by Charles Eliot Norton, The New Life of Dante Alighieri (Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1967), 1-2, 3-4, and 65-66.

42. Gimbutas, Goddesses and Gods, 205.

43. Theogony 116-34, abridged, translated by Richard Lattimore, Hesiod (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1959), 130-31.

44. See The Jerusalem Bible (Garden City, N.Y: Doubleday, Imprimatur, 1966), 943, note h.

45. Dom Caspar LeFebure O.S.B., Daily Missal with Vespers for Sundays and Feasts (Lophem-near-Bruges, Belgium: Abbey of St. Andre; Saint Paul Minnesota: The R.M. Lohmann Co., 1934), 187.

46. These are recorded in Asoka's Rock Edict XIII. Cf. Vincent A. Smith, The Edicts of Asoka (London, 1909), 20. This is an exceedingly rare book, only one hundred copies having been printed. It revises the translations given by the author in his earlier volume, Asoka: The Buddhist Emperor of India (Oxford, '1901).

47. Conclusiones . . . de mode intelligendi hymnos Orphei, no. 8, as cited by Edgar Wind, Pagan Mysteries in the Renaissance, rev. and enlarged ed. (New York and London: W. W. Norton, 1968), 36.

48. Wind, Pagan Mysteries, 36.

49. Ibid., 37-38 and note 9.

50. Wind, Pagan Mysteries, 259.

51. Ibid., 266.

52. Shatcakranirupanam 49; Avalon, The Serpent Power, 448.

53. Wind, Pagan Mysteries, 38, note 9, citing Proclus, Elements of Theology, prop. 35 (ed. Dodds [1933], 18f).

54. Wind, Pagan Mysteries, p. 38, note 9.

55. Ibid., 43.

56. Translation byJ. L. Stocks, in The Complete Works of Aristotle, edited by Jonathan Barnes, Bollingen Series LXXI> 2 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984), 1:447.

57. B. Jowett translation, 4th ed., revised, 1953; 1st ed., 1871.

58. Gimbutas, Goddesses and Gods, 93.

59. Joseph Campbell, The Way of the Animal Powers, vol. I of Historical Atlas of World Mythology (New York and San Francisco: Harper & Row, Alfred van der Marck editions, 1983). See figs. 66 and 109, "The Woman with the Horn."

60. Alexander Marshack, The Roots of Civilization (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1972), 335 and note 17.

61. Campbell, Animal Powers, fig. III.

62. Ibid., fig. 112.

63. Gimbutas, Goddesses and Gods, 93.

64. James Mellaart, Catal Huyuk: A Neolithic Town in Anatolia (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967).

65. Gimbutas, Goddesses and Gods, 224.

66. Ibid., 227.

67. Campbell, Animal Powers, fig. 110.

68. Kena Upanishad 3-4.

69. See Marija Gimbutas's fundamental articles on this subject in The Journal of Indo-European Studies, vol. I, no. I (Spring 1973), "Old Europe c.7000-3500 B.C.: The Earliest European Civilization before the Infiltration of the Indo-European Peoples"; and vol. I, no. 2 (Summer 1973), "The Beginning of the Bronze Age in Europe and the Indo-Europeans 3500-2500 B.C."; also, vol. 8, nos. 3 and 4 (Fall/Winter 1980), "The Kurgan wave #2 (c.3400-3200 B.C.) into Europe and the Following Transformation of Culture."

70. For an introduction to the works and career of Georges Durnfail, see Edgar C. Polome, ed., "Homage to Georges Dumezil," Journal of Indo-European Studies, monograph no. 3 (1982).

71. The earliest archaeological strata of this important site date back to ca. 8000 B.C. See Kathleen M. Kenyon, Archaeology in the Holy Land (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1960), 42.

72. Voluspi 42-49; translated by Bellows, Poetic Edda, 18-21.

73. Snorri Sturluson, "The Beguiling of Gylfi" 51; adapted from Arthur Gilchrist Brodeur, The Prose Edda of Snorri Sturluson (New York: American-Scandinavian Foundation, Oxford University Press, 1929), 77-81.

74. Einar Palsson, Roetur islenzkrar menningar, 7 vols., more to come (Reykjavik: Mimir, 1969-85).

75. Einar Palsson, Hypothesis as a Tool in Mythology (Reykjavik: Mimir, 1984), II.

76. As reported in News from Iceland, Reykjavik (August 1985): 1, 22; Also, Morgunblathith (July 16, 1985), 52.

77. Einar Palsson, Celtic Christianity in Pagan Iceland (Reykjavik: Mimir, March 1985), 22-23.

78. Palsson, Hypothesis as a Tool in Mythology, 24.

79. Palsson, Celtic Christianity in Pagan Iceland, 8-9.

80. Einar Palsson, The Dome of Heaven: The Marking of Sacred Sites in Pagan Iceland and Medieval Florence, A Report on Studies in Florence in May 1980 (Reykjavik: Mimir, April 1981), 47.

81. Palsson, Celtic Christianity in Pagan Iceland, 7.

82. Franz Rolf Schroder, Altgermanische Kulturprobleme, Trubners Philologische Bibliothek Band II (Berlin und Leipzig: Walter de Gruyter, 1929), 64.

83. Ibid., 69-70.

84. Havamal 139, 140, 142, translated by Bellows, Poetic Edda, 60-61.

85. A critical review of the scholarship of this subject appears in Schroder, Altgermanische Kulturprobleme, 21-39.

86. Campbell, The Mythic Image, fig. 308.

87. Elaine Pagels, The Gnostic Gospels (New York: Random House, 1979), xx and passim.

88. Campbell, Mythic Image, figs. 53 and 54.

89. The Gospel According to Thomas, Coptic text established and translated by A. Guillaumont, H.-Ch. Puech, G. Quispel, W. Till, and Yasah abd al Masih (Leiden: E. J. Brill; New York: Harper & Brothers, 1959), 55, 57, and 3.

90. Voluspi 27 and 28/29 combined and abridged. Bellows, Poetic Edda, 12-13.

91. Snorri Sturluson, Gylfaginning 27. Brodeur, The Prose of Edda of Snorri Sturluson, 40.

92. Schroder, Altgermanische Kulturprobleme, chap. 17.

93. Palsson, Hypothesis as a Tool in Mythology, 31, citing Ernest G. McClain, The Myth of lnvariance (New York: Nicolas Hays, 1976), 104-5.

94. Ibid., 32-35.

95. Quotations from Danielou, Introduction to the Musical Scales, as cited earlier.

96. Sermon on "Riddance" in Franz Pfeiffer, Meister Eckhart, translated by C. de B. Evans, 2 vols. (London: John M. Watkins, 1947), sermon 96, vol.I, p. 239.

97. And others, most notable among whom are Johann Bachofen (Matriarchy and Primordial Religion {Mutterrecht und Urreligion, 1861]); Hermann Wirth ("Die Symbolhistorische Methode," in Zeitschrift f. Religionswissenschaft [Munster, 1955]); Louise Hagberg (Easter Eggs and their Pre-Christian Origin [Fataburen 1906]); and Franz Hancar ("The Problem of the Venus-statuettes in the Eurasian Paleolithic" in Praehistorische Zeitschrift, 30-31 [1939-40]: 128). Hermann Wirth cites Hancar and was the first to note as far back as 1955 that "these cultic birds with their symbolic ornaments are the same companion birds of a fully stylized statuette of the Great Mother-Goddess, the 'StaraBaba' [i.e., "Ancient Mother," C.M.] of Siberia as found at Kostyenki and Gagarino in the Don region, as well as around Willendorf in lower Austria: statuettes related also to the southwestern mother-goddess statues of Menton, Brassempouy and Laussel." C. M.

98. Ancient Egypt would put this unambiguously as "The Horus beyond Osiris is Isis, Mother of Horus" "Osiris" and "Horus" denoting two stages in the growth of divinity. C. M.


In All Her Names